Upper limbs skeleton Skeleton of upper limbs consists of the shoulder girdle (clavicle and scapula), the free upper limb, which consists of the humer

Skeleton of the upper and lower limbs

Upper limbs skeleton

Skeleton of upper limbs consists of the shoulder girdle (clavicle and scapula), the free upper limb, which consists of the humerus, forearm bones — ulna, radius and a hand bone. The latter consists of the carpus, metacarpus and finger bones (diagram 31.a). All parts of the hand are interconnected with many joints, which make it very flexible.

Lower limbs skeleton

Lower limbs are the only human organ that sustains the body and makes it movable, and, because of this, they are formed of the largest and the strongest bones. The skeleton of lower limbs includes pelvic girdle or pelvis, which consists of the sacrum and the two hip bones. Due to the vertical walking of human, it was formed a strong and wide pelvis. The skeleton of the free lower limb is formed by the femur, the two bones of the lower leg — the tibia and small tibia and foot bones (diagram 31.b). Human foot, in contrast to Vertebrates, has an arch (fig. 30). Taken from http://worldofschool.org

Diagram 30. Human skeleton of the foot (a) and monkey’s one (b). 1 — arch of the human’s foot
Diagram 31. The hand skeleton (a) and the foot one (b): a) 1 — ulna, 2 — radius, 3-8 — carpus bone, 9 — metacarpus bones, 10 — finger phalanges; b) 11 — calcaneus, 12-17 — tarsal bones, 18 — metatarsals, 19 — finger phalanges
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Questions:
  • Explain the features of the structure and functions of the upper limbs skeleton.

  • Explain the features of the structure and functions of the lower limbs skeleton.