Grafting (inoculation) consists in splicing cuttings or buds with a plant sitting in the soil. Plant being grafted (propagule, bud) is called the sci

Plant grafting [Inoculation]

Grafting (inoculation) consists in splicing cuttings or buds with a plant sitting in the soil. Plant being grafted (propagule, bud) is called the scion, and the one to which it is grafted is called the rootstock (stock or wilding); thus, the scion grafts onto rootstock. The better and faster the fusion with the stock, the better the results of grafting.

Grafting is used with the purpose to give for scion a more powerful feeding root system that has greater frost resistance, resistance to fungal diseases, for the purpose of obtaining vegetative hybrids, and so on. Reproduction of the seedless varieties of plants carries out only by grafting.

There are more than 100 ways of grafting. The most common are: grafting by approach (inarching), whip (tongue) grafting, bark (wedge) grafting, cleft grafting, shield budding (diagram 131).

Bark and cleft grafting carries out in the case of different thicknesses of the scion and rootstock.

Grafting by approach (inarching)

Grafting by approach, or inarching, is usually used for potplants or in nurseries. In two plants growing side by side, remove equal length and width strips of bark along the stem. In the future scion on the side opposite to the notch remains a bud. The shoots of the scion and rootstock cuts bring immediately together and tightly tie. In such position, leave the plant for all summer and winter. In the spring of next year, when the scion with the stock will fuse together and between them will be established physiological connection, shoot of the scion cuts off below place of grafting. At the same time removes the tip of the stock in order to rapidly develop bud that has been left on the scion. After that, the bandage removes.

Whip (tongue) grafting

Whip (or tongue) grafting — is the merging of the scion and rootstock with equal thickness. Scion and rootstock in this case cut obliquely and the cut pieces come together so that individual tissues (especially the cambium) of the two closely link. Approached objects are being fastened and daubed with grafting compound.

Diagram 131. Different ways of grafting: 1. Whip (tongue) grafting. 2. Bark (wedge) grafting. 3. Cleft grafting. 4. Shield budding

Bark (wedge) grafting

Bark (wedge) grafting is done in the spring, when the bark can be easily separated from the timber. Make incision of the rootstock bark in the horizontal direction under the stem node. Then, make a vertical incision of the bark, and carefully untuck the edges of the bark. The scion is the propagule. It cuts in half-cone shape and puts under stock bark, with the flat end to the timber. Press untucked edges of bark against the trunk and tie the grafting tightly (diagram 131, 2).

Cleft grafting

Cleft grafting (diagram 131, 3) successfully uses for woody plants. Taken from http://worldofschool.org

Shield budding (T-budding)

In shield budding the bud of scion transplants under the bark of the rootstock. On the rootstock cuts a T-shaped incision and the bark untucks. The bud of scion, which is usually cut off from the timber portion (shield), places in the resulting pocket. The bud tight-fits to the plant under the bark, pressing it against the wood of the rootstock; untuck parts of the stock bark tape up outside. Usually coalescence of the scion with the stock occurs in the grafting year. The development of the buds and the formation of shoots begin next year. Shield budding is usually done in the lower part of the shoot in the summer or spring, so that in winter the grafting will be protected from freezing by snow.