Thallophyta and Embryophyta In modern botany (the first half of the XXI century) flora is informally divided into two large groups: the lower and hig

Plant classification [taxonomy, systematics]

Thallophyta and Embryophyta

In modern botany (the first half of the XXI century) flora is informally divided into two large groups: the lower and higher plants, otherwise Thallophyta and Embryophyta. The division of the Plant kingdom on the lower and higher plants is not strictly taxonomic, but has a practical and pedagogical convenience.


Thallophyta are divided into divisions (phylums):

  • Golden algae (Chrysophyta).
  • Dinoflagellates (Dinophyta).
  • Cryptomonad (Cryptophyta).
  • Euglenophyta (Euglenophyta).
  • Green algae (Chlorophyta).
  • Yellow-green algae (Heterokontae, or Xanthophyta).
  • Diatoms (Diatomeae, or Bacillariophyta).
  • Brown algae (Phaeophyta).
  • Red algae, or whelk (Rhodophyta).
  • Stoneworts algae (Charophyta)
  • Lichens (Lichenes).

Dinoflagellates and Cryptomonad divisions were previously merged into one division — Pyrrophyta.

Thallophyta previously also had:

  • bacteria (Bacteriophyta);
  • cyanobacteria, or blue-green algae (Cyanophyta);
  • fungus (Fungi);
  • slime molds (Myxophyta);
  • flagellated organisms (Flagellata), standing on the brink of flora and fauna and considered by most botanists as a possible type of ancient organisms that gave rise to some types of Thallophyta.


Embryophyta are divided into 9 divisions (phylums):

  • Bryophytes (Bryophyta).
  • Flowers (Magnoliophyta or Angiospermae).
  • Group vascular spore (Pteridophyta).
    • Fern (Polypodiophyta).
    • Lycopsids (Lycopodiophyta).
    • Horse-tails, or whorled (Equisetophyta or Sphenopsida, or Articulatae).
  • Group of gymnosperms (Gymnospermae).
    • Cycadophyta.
    • Ginkgophyta.
    • Gnetophyta.
    • Conifers (Pinophyta, or Coniferae).

Modern and traditional systems of classification

Classification of Embryophyta has several relevant variations. There is modern and the traditional systems of Embryophyta taxonomy.

Modern taxonomy is represented by two groups: non-vascular plants (Bryophytes) and vascular (Tracheophytes). The latter, in turn, are divided into divisions: vascular spore, or ferns (Pteridophyta), lycopsids (Lycopodiophyta) and seed plants (Spermatophyta).

Modern classification

  • Group Bryophyta.
    • Division Marchantiophyta.
    • Division Anthocerotophyta.
    • Division Bryophyta.
    • Extinct division Horneophytopsida.
  • Group of Vascular Plants (Tracheophytes).
    • Division of vascular spore, or Ferns Pteridophyta.
      • Subdivision Psilotophyta; often included in Polypodiophyta.
      • Subdivision Polypodiophyta.
      • Subdivision Ophioglossophyta; often included in Psilotophyta.
      • Subdivision Equisetophyta.
      • Division Lycopodiophyta.
      • Extinct division Rhyniophyta.
      • Extinct class Trimerophytopsida.
      • Subgroup of seed plants Spermatophyta.
        • Extinct division of seed ferns Pteridospermatophyta.
        • Division Ginkgophyta.
        • Division Gnetophyta.
        • Division Pinophyta.
        • Division Cycadophyta.
        • Division of flowers Magnoliophyta, or Angiospermae.

Traditional classification

The traditional taxonomy of Embryophyta has a similar form:

  • Group Bryophytes. Taken from
  • Division of ferns, or vascular spore Pteridophyta.
    • The class of ferny Polypodiopsida.
      • Family Psilotidae; in modern classification Ophioglossophyta is excluded from here.
      • Family of ferns Polypodiidae.
      • Family of horsetail Equisetidae.
      • Family Marattiidae.
      • Class Lycopodiopsida.
      • Extinct subdivision Rhyniophyta.
      • Extinct subdivision Zosterophyllophyta.
      • Extinct subdivision Barinophyta.
  • Group Gymnosperm.
    • Division Ginkgophyta.
    • Division Gnetophyta.
    • Division Cycadophyta.
    • Division of conifers, or pine Pinophyta.
  • Division of flowers Angiospermae.