Epiphysis (pineal gland) is located in the midbrain. In ancient Greece it was considered as "the center of the human soul". However, epiphysis functi

Pineal gland and thyroid [Epiphysis]

Epiphysis (pineal gland) is located in the midbrain. In ancient Greece it was considered as "the center of the human soul". However, epiphysis functions were unknown for a long time.

Vertebrates’ epiphysis is known as a "third eye" — the formation of the photoreceptor. Due to this structure, the animals determine day and night. Humans use the pineal gland as a biological clocks that regulate the sensation of the daily biological rhythm. It produces the hormone melatonin. This hormone inhibits the development of sexual glands and thereby inhibits premature sexual development. Activity inhibition of the pineal gland among children causes premature sexual development and restraining the growth as a result of braking action on the pituitary gland.

The pineal gland receives information of illumination level through nerve pathways from the visual organs. Melatonin, unlike melanotropin, suppresses the formation of dark pigment of the skin, thereby causing its lighting. Production violation of this hormone may cause skin bleaching (vitiligo) or hyperpigmentation. Taken from http://worldofschool.org

The thyroid gland — is one of the largest endocrine glands of man. It is located in front of the trachea, has the weight of 25-30 g, formed by two lobes connected by an isthmus. The main thyroid hormone — thyroxine. It includes iodine. This hormone activates all types of metabolism in all organs and systems. Dysfunction of the thyroid causes serious diseases. Its work is controlled by the pituitary hormone thyrotropin.

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Questions:
  • Define and justify the value of the pineal gland for the human body.

  • Determine the relationship of structure and function of the thyroid gland.