Sometimes plants do not have the fertilization process: the embryo develops from an unfertilized egg. This virginal development of the embryo is call

Parthenogenesis in plants

Sometimes plants do not have the fertilization process: the embryo develops from an unfertilized egg. This virginal development of the embryo is called parthenogenesis (e.g. in Alchemilla vulgaris, Dandelion, Hieracium).

Sometimes the embryo develops not from the egg, but from the other elements of the embryo sac — from synergids, antipodes. This phenomenon is known in fragrant onion (Allium odorum), in plantain (Plantago lanceolata). Sometimes the embryo develops from the cells of nucellus and integument.

In many plants the fruits develop without fertilization. They typically do not contain seeds or contain “empty” seeds without embryos. Such fruits are called parthenocarpic; they are known in many crops — in grapes (varieties with seedless berries), in pumpkins, tangerines, cucumbers, bananas, pineapples and others.

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