Parathyroid glands (from the Greek ldquo;nearrdquo;) are located on the back or the side surfaces of the thyroid gland. These glands are very small,

Parathyroid gland

Parathyroid glands (from the Greek “near”) are located on the back or the side surfaces of the thyroid gland. These glands are very small, like peas, weight 0.5-0.8 g each. They produce only one hormone — parathyroid hormone. It regulates the content of calcium and phosphorus in the blood plasma. Hyperfunction of the parathyroid glands result in softening of the bones and skeletal destruction. When there is lack of parathyroid hormone, Calcium accumulates excessively in bones, cartilage and ligaments, disrupting their functions. Due to lack of calcium in the blood, the excitability of the nervous system and muscles increases, and the person has convulsions. Taken from http://worldofschool.org

The function of the parathyroid glands is directly regulated by the action of calcium ions on the glandular cells. When its concentration in the blood is reduced below a milligram, it stimulates secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) which increases the reabsorption of calcium in kidneys, its absorption from the intestine, and if necessary — releases it from bones.

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Questions:
  • Identify the relationship of the parathyroid glands structure and functions.

  • What are the consequences of parathyroid glands dysfunction?