The question of the differences and similarities of living and non-living worries the minds of mankind for a long time. On one hand, in the chemical

Ontogeny and phylogeny of plants

The question of the differences and similarities of living and non-living worries the minds of mankind for a long time. On one hand, in the chemical composition of living and non-living has known similarities: here and there we meet with the same chemical elements. On the other hand, there is a notable difference. In living organisms carbon compounds dominate. This predominance of carbon compounds has led to the fact that the chemistry that studies carbon compounds is called organic chemistry, although it nowadays explores mainly the structure of various synthetic substances that do not occur in organisms. A living organism is closely connected to environmental conditions, and it has constant metabolism. Exchange of substances with the environment is what distinguishes the living from the non-living. A serious attention to this circumstance paid Engels.

Absorbing substances from the environment, the plant assimilates them, turning to the substance of its body. This process is called assimilation. At the same time in the body there are processes of decay, or dissimilation. The process of assimilation of the substances from the surrounding external environment, their transition into the body of an organism, the decay of the substances and their withdrawal from the body is called metabolism.

Due to the absorption of nutrients from the surrounding environment of the body increases in size, increasing its volume and weight, it grows and goes through a series of qualitative changes of its state, i.e. develops. Development occurs in both animals and plants. As a result of the processes occurring in the plant, angiosperms bloom and bear fruit with seeds inside them. So from sown seed until the formation of new seeds from annuals and until the withering away of the perennial plant, it takes the entire life development of individual plants, or ontogeny. Taken from

In his time, Engels pointed out that one of the fundamental properties of living is irritability, i.e. the ability to perceive the external environment and respond to them, or — to adapt to them. For a long path of development, that the ancestors of the plants passed, as they say, in the process of phylogeny, plants have been adapting to specific environmental conditions, which have become the conditions of their life. Certain adaptation of plants to conditions of life is a hereditary of this organism. By changing these conditions of life, we are changing the nature of metabolism and therefore we also can change the hereditary nature of the organism.

Thus, the phylogeny of plants produces certain adaptability to the conditions of life, and in the process of ontogenesis, due to changes in external conditions, there may be a new plant needs, which implies a change in its shape and appearance of new features and properties. So phylogeny and ontogeny are closely linked with the living conditions.