Structural and functional unit of the kidney is the nephron . There are almost million of them in every kidney, whereby the total functional surface

Nephron and microscopic structure of the kidney

Structural and functional unit of the kidney is the nephron.

There are almost million of them in every kidney, whereby the total functional surface that forms urine is 5.6 m2. The microscopic structure of the nephron is shown in figure 98. This winding tube, one end of which extends in the form of a goblet (Shymlanskaya-Bowman capsule), and the other one — ends with a hole in uropoiesis tube.

There is glomerulus of 50-60 capillaries inside the capsule. Inflow arteriole has a significantly larger diameter than the arteriole that exits the capsule. This creates a significant blood pressure in the capillaries of the glomeruli — up to 70-80 mmHg, and therefore some of the plasma squeezes in the cavity of the capsule. This process is called glomerular filtration. As a result of filtering the primary urine is formed. Taken from http://worldofschool.org

Diagram 98. The anatomy of nephron. Nephron channel system (black arrows indicate the direction of blood flow, red — urine): 1 — Malpighian glomerulus; 2 — goblet-shaped capsule; 3 — inflow capillary; 4 — outflow capillary; 5 — glomerular capillaries; 6 — goblet capsule cavity; 7 — the initial part of the nephron tubules; 8 — the outer wall of the capsule; 9 — the inner wall of the capsule; 10 — glomerular arterioles; 11 — convoluted ducts; 12 — a loop; 13 — capillary network; 14 — collecting ducts; 15 — papillary ducts; 16 — venule nephron
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Questions:
  • What is the basic structural and functional unit of the kidney?

  • Describe the relationship of the microscopic structure and functions of the kidneys.