The activity of the endocrine system is completely subordinated to the nervous system. The main leading nervous structure is the hypothalamus. He sup

How do nervous and endocrine systems work together? [similarities difference]

The activity of the endocrine system is completely subordinated to the nervous system. The main leading nervous structure is the hypothalamus. He supervises the maintenance of homeostasis due to information, received from receptors that are located in the internal organs, blood vessels and ventricles of the brain. On the one hand, hypothalamus affects, through the autonomic nervous system, on the activity of internal organs, and on the other — allocates neurohormones that stimulate or inhibit the secretion of regulation hormones by pituitary. They determine the secretory activity of other endocrine glands and thus — their impact on the indicators of homeostasis. Structured formation, that provides interconnection of hypothalamus and the pituitary gland, is called the hypothalamic-pituitary system (diagram 158). The intensity of hormones formation is controlled by the mechanism of “feedback”. If the gland produces a hormone excess, the caused changes, through the hypothalamus and the pituitary inhibit the formation of hormone and vice versa.

Endocrine regulation effectively complements nervous. Response of the nervous influence is manifested almost immediately, but it cannot be long-term, as the nerve centers quickly get tired. Influence of hormones is slowly, because it is associated with their formation, release and transport via blood. Hormonal response occurs within a few seconds or even minutes. It may last for a minute (epinephrine, norepinephrine), hours (hormones that affect the urine formation), and years (sex hormones). Taken from

Diagram 158. Hormonal control: 1 — anterior pituitary; 2 — posterior lobe of the pituitary gland; 3 — pituitary stalk; 4 — skin (melanocyte stimulating hormone); 5 — adrenal (adrenocorticotropic hormone); 6 — the thyroid gland (thyroid stimulating hormone); 7 — bones (somatotropic growth hormone); 8 — testicle and ovary (follicle stimulating hormone or FSH, luteinising hormone or LH); 9 — renal tubules (antidiuretic hormone); 10 — uterine muscle and mammary gland (oxytocin)

Another feature of the endocrine regulation is that the response to the action of hormones is distributed throughout the body. For example, under the action of pancreatic hormone — insulin — carbohydrate metabolism changes in every cell of the body. A nervous influence is usually strictly limited by the reaction of a single organ. For example, when receiving excitation of a certain muscle from the central nervous system, it can contract alone, while others remain relaxed. So where the quick, short-term, local reaction is needed, the effective regulation would be a nervous one. However, if you need long-term, all-encompassing effect — the endocrine system will do it.

  • Explain the biological significance of the endocrine system in regulation of human body functions.

  • How do the nervous and endocrine systems interact and communicate?

  • Explain the difference and similarity between the nervous and endocrine systems.

  • When the nervous regulation is needed, and when — endocrine.