The autonomic nervous system provides two types of reflex influences - functional and trophic . Trophic influence is in a change of the metabolic in

Functions of autonomic nervous system (functional and trophic influence)

The autonomic nervous system provides two types of reflex influences — functional and trophic.

Trophic influence is in a change of the metabolic intensity in working organs, what determines their level of function. Trophic effect on the organs work described the Russian scientist Leon Orbeli. An example of such influence may be the action of the sympathetic nerve to tired skeletal muscle. Under the influence, muscle work increases, it resumes its operation as a result of the intensification of metabolism. This effect is related to the phenomenon of outdoor activities — the interchange of one activity kind to others. As a result of the increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system becomes a rapid resumption of tired organ workability.

The functional influence on organs is that it either stimulates or inhibits their function. The sympathetic nervous system generally contributes to the intensification of the body activities (e.g. in stressful situations), and the parasympathetic system ensures the resumption of resources that have been spent during the intense activity. Upon excitation of the sympathetic nervous system increases heart rate and forces of its contraction, increases blood pressure and blood glucose levels as a result of liver glycogen breakdown, increases efficiency of skeletal muscle, but inhibits the function of the digestive tract. Taken from http://worldofschool.org

Upon excitation of the parasympathetic nervous system, inhibits heart function, reduces blood pressure, reduces blood glucose level under the action of insulin, but increases the motor and secretory activity of the digestive system. Consequently, the effect of the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system to any internal organ has the opposite orientation (antagonistic effect). Different effects of the autonomic nerves on the working organs is determined by the excitation transfer chemistry. The nerve endings of the sympathetic nerves in organs secrete neurotransmitter norepinephrine, and in the endings of the parasympathetic — acetylcholine.

Changes in the activity of internal organs under the influence of the autonomic nervous system is always directed to the preservation and renewal of the relative constancy of the internal environment — homeostasis.

The activity of the autonomic nervous system is under the control of the supreme centers of the autonomic regulation — the hypothalamus.

Questions:
  • Determine the interrelation of the peripheral nervous system functions.

  • Explain the coherence between the central and peripheral nervous system.