Eukaryotes superkingdom is divided by three kingdoms: Plantae , Animalia and Fungi . Plants (Plantae) Plantae kingdom has immobile photosynthetic org

Eukaryotes (plants, animals and fungi)

Eukaryotes superkingdom is divided by three kingdoms: Plantae, Animalia and Fungi.

Plants (Plantae)

Plantae kingdom has immobile photosynthetic organisms whose cells have a dense shell and a permanent form; in the cytoplasm are the plastids, particularly chloroplasts. The kingdom is usually divided into two subkingdoms Thallophyta and Embryophyta.

Thallophyta (lower plants)

Thallophyta — are algae, assigned to different evolutionary origin groups. The main difference between Embryophyta and algae is that the first’ body is divided into organs, and cells differentiated into tissue. Therefore, no matter how big is algae (brown algae can reach hundreds of meters in length), its body is built from the same cells, and there is no vascular system and organs. In addition, the cell walls of algae, in some cases, formed not only by a tissue, and many of them doesn’t have them, cells may have contractile vacuoles and movement organs — flagella.

Embryophyta (higher plants)

Embryophyta have vascular system and organs of the body, their cells are collected in tissues. Embryophyta body is built not by one cell, like many algae, but by millions and billions of cells. This subkingdom usually divides by two groups: Non-vascular land plants or Bryophytes and Vascular plants or Tracheophytes. The latter are divided into two groups: Higher spore plants (mosses, club mosses, horsetails, ferns) that reproduce by spores and have a long gametophyte stage, and Seed plants (gymnosperms and angiosperms) that reproduce solely by seed, while their gametophyte stage is reduced.

Diagram 219. Members of Protista group that were recently considered as a separate kingdom of living beings: a — Amoeba Proteus; b — colonial ciliate; c — green algae; d — brown algae

Animals (Animalia)

Animal kingdom includes mobile heterotrophic organisms. Their cells lack the photosynthetic apparatus and cell membranes, so they can change their shape. Single-celled animals reproduce by dividing in two cells, multicellular — using gametes. This kingdom is divided into two subkingdoms: Single-celled, or Unicellular, or Protozoa, and Multicellular.


Single-celled animals by many of its features are indistinguishable from some groups of algae; so many scientists consider algae, protozoa and some fungi as primitive Protista kingdom (diagram 219).


The body of multicellular animals is constructed by tissues. The only exception is sponges that do not have tissues and organs, and one type of cells can regenerate into other cell types. All other multicellular organisms are characterized by the differentiation of the cells, according to which they can be referred to four types of tissues. The embryos of multicellular animals, ranging from flat worms are composed of three germ layers. All embryos are to have internal organs, which form from organ systems. Taken from


Fungi kingdom combine features of plants and animals. Due to the fact that they have thick cell membrane and are immobile, they resemble plants; but due to the fact that this shell is constructed of chitin — complex polysaccharide, that form the cuticle of arthropods, they resemble animals.

The absence of the photosynthetic apparatus and heterotrophic type of nutrition also brings them closer to the animals. However, the reproduction by disputes reminds reproduction of spore plants. Fungi have specific cellular structure. Their body — hyphae is essentially one long cell, broken into sections which normally have two equal cores. Hyphae plexus form fruiting bodies of edible mushrooms.

Fungi are mainly multicellular organisms. Modern unicellular fungi — yeast — are of secondary origin, as evolved from multicellular fungi. Fungi are divided into lower and higher. Lower fungi are so different from the higher (Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes) that some researchers do not consider them as Fungi, referring to the Protista.