The blood from the ventricles of the heart continues its path through the arteries of pulmonary and systemic circulation. Arteries are not only condu

Arteries and arterial pulse

The blood from the ventricles of the heart continues its path through the arteries of pulmonary and systemic circulation.

Arteries are not only conductors, but they also actively control the volume of the blood supply in the body (due to the sympathetic innervation of the smooth muscle of their walls). For example, the smallest of them — arterioles -, if necessary, open for a better blood supply a hard-working organ, or slightly decrease their clearance in the organ that rests.

If you palpate the large artery in the periphery of the body (diagram 64), you can feel that it oscillates rhythmically with the heartbeat. These fluctuations are called arterial pulse (from the Latin “punch, kick”). They are predetermined by stretching the walls of the aorta by blood, which is pushed by the left ventricle of the heart. With a certain speed, this oscillation distributes throughout the arterial system, extinguishing near the capillaries. Taken from http://worldofschool.org

Diagram 64. Places for pulse palpation: 1 — on radial artery; 2 — on the temporal artery; 3 — on the carotid arteries

Each pulse hit, in normal, corresponds to one heart contraction. In adults, it is contracted 60-85 times per minute. The pulse rate depends on the state of the autonomic and central nervous system.

Arterial pulse is characterized by rhythm, frequency and filling. The latter depends on the amount of blood that the left ventricle ejects. If unconscious, in a state of fainting, when the pressure drops abruptly, pulse has weak filling and it’s almost impossible to palpate.

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Questions:
  • What vessels are in the arterial system?

  • Explain the mechanism of the blood movement through the arteries.

  • Explain the mechanism of arterial smooth muscle function regulation.

  • Due to what there is the arterial pulse?