By life expectancy plants may be annual , biennial and perennial . Annual plants Annual plants complete their life cycle within one growing season. A

Annual, biennial and perennial plants

By life expectancy plants may be annual, biennial and perennial.

Annual plants

Annual plants complete their life cycle within one growing season. All of its development, i.e. all its way of qualitative changes from seed to seed, they pass within two to four months. These include, in addition to a variety of wild plants, also many cultivated plants. All spring bread and many horticultural plants are annual crops (spring wheat, oats, barley, millet, sunflower, beans, etc.).

Biennial plants

The transition to the biennial are winter crops. The true biennials, i.e. the plants that bloom only in the second year are beets, cabbage, carrots and several other vegetable plants.

Perennial plants

Perennials usually begin to bloom in a few years, sometimes even decades after the germination of the seed and then they usually bearing fruits for a number of years. So, oak begins to bloom and bear fruit at the age of 40 to 80 years, apple — in 5-10th year of life, and so on.

Table. The age of some trees in which they begin to bloom

Wood species

The age at which they begin to bloom (years)
















Starts to bloom after at 10, but gives the seeds at 20

Monocarpic and polycarpic plants

There are perennials, flowering and bearing fruits only once in a lifetime. Plants, bearing fruits once in their lives, are called monocarpic and bearing fruits repeatedly called polycarpic plants. Monocarpic are all annuals and biennials and a small number of perennials. Taken from

“Monos” in Greek means “one,” poly — “a lot”. “Karpon” word means “fruit”. Literally translated, it’s like “once fruiting” and “repeatedly fruiting” plants.

One example of monocarpic perennials is Mexican agave. Agave blooms in their homeland in the 8-10-th year of its life, bears fruit and seeds and then dies. The same property have Central Asian plants of the Ferula genus, belonging to the family Umbelliferae. 6-7 years ferrule grows in a rosette of leaves form. There grows a long, above human’s height, inflorescence that blooms and bears fruit, and then dies. Such plants are relatively rare.